Ibrahim, Hasan Hasan. The history and culture of Islam 2. Jakarta: Kalam Noble, 2001
Books of History and Culture of Islam is about the kholifah Umayyads, Political and Religious Movement, Umayyad Administration Systems, Culture and the Arts, as well as form - form of society at the time of the Umayyads.
This book is a continuation of Islamic History and Culture I. Thus, the first chapter is the chapter that describes the fifth Umayyad Kholifah and things - things that cause the collapse of the Umayyads. The order - the order of the Umayyad kholifah are as follows:
1. Muawiyyah ibn Abu Sufyan (41 AH / 661 AD)
2. Yazid bin Muawiyyah (60 AH / 680 AD)
3. Muawiyyah II (64 AH / 683 AD)
4. Marwan bin Al-Hakam (64 AH / 683 AD)
5. Abdul Malik bin Marwan (65 AH / 685 AD)
6. Al Walid bin Abdul Malik (89 AH / 705 AD)
7. Sulaiman bin Abdul Malik (96 AH / 715 AD)
8. Umar bin Abdul Aziz (99 AH / 717 AD)
9. Yazid bin Abdul Malik (101H / 720 M)
10. Hisham bin Abdul Malik (105H / 724 M)
11. Al Walid bin Abdul Malik (125H / 743 M)
12. Yazid III (126H / 744 M)
13. Ibrahim (126H / 744 M)
14. Marwan II (127-132H / 744-750 AD)
At the time of Ibn Malik ibn Walid many areas - areas that can be overcome, including the area that is across the river and attempt to conquer the land of China, conquered India, conquered Andalusia.
The factor - factor that led to the collapse of the Umayyads were:
a. Appointment of two crown
The appointment of the crown prince a factor two sons Umayyad collapse due to this move has been cultivating the seeds of hostility and competition among family members
b. The emergence of ethnic bigotry
When Umar bin Abdul Aziz died, then replaced Yazid bin Abdul Malik happened many libel essentially a dispute between the Northern Arabs with Arabs south.
c. Immersed in luxury
The pattern of the lives of some of the kholifah Amawi a very luxurious and pleasure in wild - spree as inheritance patterns of Byzantine rulers considered as another factor that contributed greatly to the Talah mananam collapse Amawiyah Daulah. Yazid bin Muawiya, Yazid bin Abdul Malik is a very famous Amawi kholifah as female admirer and fan of debauchery. So did his son Al-Walid, a poet kualifaid many stringing words - words in lashing and poetic romance.
d. Arab fanatics
Amawiyah Daulah is pure Arab daulah, both blood and flesh. Thus, people - people are very fanatic Amawi the Arab nation and very fanatic with kearabannya. They look at people - non-Arab Muslims (mawali) with the view of one eye so that this attitude has caused fitnah among the Muslims and they think their language is the language of the most high.
In the sixth chapter of the book explains the Political and Religious Movement. Muhammad Sepeninggalan the Muslimim torn in a dispute about the person entitled to the position kholifah which ended with the election of Abu Bakr. In the selection of fragmentation affects two groups: Jamaiah (group receiving Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman and being obedient even kholifah positions held by the Umayyads) and Shiite groups (groups that are entitled to assume ahlul temple served a kholifah, Ali bin Abu Tholib then the son as heir. Meanwhile several groups that emerged after Uthman’s death:
• Measures Talha, Az Zubayr and Aisha (the battle of Jamal)
Ali bin Abi Tholib been about providing advice to people - people who seek revenge for the blood of Uthman that they be patient. When the atmosphere is calm and in control of their demands are not granted. Eventually they rebel against the government of Ali ibn Abi Tholib causing wars (the battle of Jamal).
• Disputes advocates supporting Ali Uthman (War of Siffin - At tahkim).
• The Khowarij (Nahrawan War),
The Khowarij divided into twenty groups were different from one another, both in teaching and in just a part of it all. Among some groups - groups of the Khowarij are:
Al Azariqah, the followers of Nafi ‘ibn al - Azraq. He is fluent number one among the leaders of this group fuqoha.
An - Najdiah, the followers najdah bin Amir Al Hanafi. Characteristics of teaching is that every person guilty after trying to get the truth before unforgivable. According to this religious group consists of two things: makrifah makrifat Allah and the Prophet - His, then the blood of the Muslims and the prohibition prohibition confiscate the entire wealth and recognize what comes from Allah.
Al - Baihasiah, the followers of ash bin Jabir Al Baihas. His teachings: that a person is not considered a Muslim until he was faithful to Allah Rosulnya and faithful to what was brought by the last Prophet of God to make the trustees as a leader
Al - Ibadhiah, the followers of Abdullah din Ibadh At Tamimi. This group tends not to be extreme pacifist in menghukumi people - different people understand him.
The Shia are the supporters of Ali ibn Abi Tholib who think that Ali is the most entitled to the position kholifah. In the reign of Yazid Hussain bin Ali revolted because that is not appropriately treated until Husayn was killed and beheaded or the tragedy of Karbala.
• Ibn az Zubair Group
• The Murjiah
Murjiah basic creed of the infidel is not anyone, whatever sins he has done for Islam and utter sentences creed. The movement is led by one of the most extreme, he take the position that faith is a bond (promise) in the liver so that even verbally expressed concerned but on the pagan God he remains a believer with complete faith and still get into heaven.
• The Mu’tazilah
Mu’tazilah creed consists of five basic: Monotheism, justice, the threat (al wa’id), the notion of a place that lies between the two and al AML bin ma’ruf wannahyu ‘anilmukar.
In the seventh chapter explains the system of government. As for parts - parts are:
a. Political System
• Khilafah, which includes kholifah requirements, system selection Al Khulafa ‘Ar Rashideen, pembaiatan Al Khulafa’ Ar Rashideen, the Amawi and Caliphate, kholifah degree.
• Ministry of
• Al Hijabah are state officials with security service chief today.
b. Government Administration
* Diwan - the Department, during the Umayyad sons diwan diwan limited to four, namely: Diwan taxes, diwan correspondence, diwan al mustaghillah, diwan stamp founded by Muawiyah ibn abu Sufyan as the largest country in the diwan.
* Emirate - Regional Government, the emirate in the wilaya Islamic lands consist of two kinds: the emirate general and specific. Emirate which is generally composed of two types: based on the will and the emirate emirate by force. Emirate are based will include seven cases, according to Al-Mawardi segagaimana, as follows:
> In terms of military, education, and large gaiinya
> In terms of law, the appointment of judges, and rulers.
> In terms of collecting taxes, charity, and raise employee.
> In terms of religion protect and defend women and religion.
> Enforce hudud in issues concerning the rights of Allah and fellow human rights.
> In terms of leadership that a leader of a priest the area concerned or a vice than them.
> In terms of taking care of pilgrims and hajj people without families so they can work with him.
* Al Barid - Post Offices
c. Financial System
* Taxes, there are three types of soil that is not burdened having to pay taxes for the owner, but only in the overload must hand over a tenth of the fruit produced, and a tenth of the price of land. According to Al-Mawardi, type of land is land owned by the population obtained not through war, land belonging to the Muslims by force which are distributed by kholifah to them as conquerors, the land taken from the Musrikin by violence (land Ghanimah).
* One-tenth of merchandise merchants infidels
* Jizyah - Tribute
d. Armed Forces
* Force Marine
* Perhakiman, during the Umayyad court there are two things: First, a judge ruled on a case law berdasarkanhasil ijtihad. Second, the court was not influenced by politics, in which the judges are independent in deciding the legal case.
* Al Hisbah,
* Al Mazhalim
* Salaries of Judges
In the eighth chapter of this book explains the Culture and the Arts. In the field of culture science division is divided into two parts, namely science and science naqli aqli. In science naqli in for some parts of the
• qiraat Sciences (Art read Al Quran)
• Booked Al Quran
• Tafsir, the Qur’an interpretation made by the commentators consist of two interpretations: the interpretation that relies on the atsar received from the Prophet and his Companions (At commentary bilma’sur), the interpretation is more reasonable than resting on the opinion leaning towards naql ( At commentary birra’yi)
• Nahwu (Grammatical Arabic), the science of growing Nahwu bashroh and Koufah as important cities of the few cities to be the navel of culture in the first century AH. In this city of science - the science of Aqeedah and Fiqh placed and madzab Nahwu clerics and scholars of languages appears.
In the sciences aqli divided into several parts:
• Chemical and medicine, Khalid bin Walid was the first to pay attention to transfer and chemical medicine into Arabic. He invited people - Greeks from Alexandria’s famous madzab kepiawainnya in the chemical industry. Luqman Al-Hakim is considered the first of the nation’s doctors Arab.Ah haris bin Kildah thoif born in the sixth century AD is the most renowned physician of his time.
• History and War, Ubaid bin Syurbah AL Yamani is the first to incorporate writing activities and the realization chronicle books. Wahb bin Munabbih considered the foundation stone - basic science of war records
• Astromoni Science,
In the field of art, namely:
a. Architecture Art
In the ninth chapter explains the Arab Community system, namely:
1. Community Structure
2. Club Music and Song
3. The palace and the Amir Kholifah
The method used in the form of thematic, assessment of this book is;
a. The book is too long - winded in writing
b. The word - he is hard to understand because in this book is a translation of the original book in Arabic.
c. Need accuracy in understanding his